11:21～11:41 慢 20min
题目来源：链接: https://pan.baidu.com/s/15FYCuD7__slfGvdsBIHgLQ 提取码: iynj
It now seems that humans began to grind grain into flour earlier than was originally thought. 【Q3】Grinding stones have been found in African and Asian sites dating from 200,000-50,000 years ago It was presumed at first that these stones were used primarily to grind plant and animal materials, or minerals, to make pigments, rather than for the preparation of foodstuffs. However, new findings from the Middle East raise the intriguing possibility that some human groups may have been using grinding stones to process cereal grains, such as wheat, and maybe other types of edible plants, as early as the Middle Paleolithic Era(i.e. 50,000 years ago and earlier). But why is it such an advantage to grind cereal grains before eating them? The main reason is that grinding breaks down the hard, fibrous cereal grain to release the easily digestible starch granules contained within This served two purposes. Firstly, it enabled people to save enormously on the wear and tear of their teeth, compared to eating raw unprocessed grains. 【Q4】Unlike the teeth of grazing animals, human teeth do not continue to grow after childhood. Tooth wear due to a diet high in fiber and raw plants can result in the substantial erosion of molars (back teeth by early adulthood. People with worn or absent teeth faced starvation unless they could find alternative types of food that did not require chewing. 【Q1】Alternatively, they could try to find another way of grinding the fibrous plant material before eating it. Perhaps it was one of these incentives【Q2】 that led to the use of stone-grinding tools for seed processing.
pigment n.色素；颜料 v.给……染色；呈现颜色
grinding stones 砂轮；磨石
edible adj.可食用的 n.食物
granules n.颗粒（granule 的复数）；颗粒剂
starch granules 淀粉颗粒
molars n.[解剖]臼齿（molar 的复数）
The development of grinding technology would have been socially advantageous to a human group. People would tend to keep their teeth for much longer, and thus older, more experienced individuals could have lived longer, despite the ultimate loss of their teeth. Such people could then serve their clan either as "grandparent" childcare givers or by acting as instruments for the innovation and transmission of oral culture. The latter role was a key adaptation in preliterate societies (societies without a writing system, particularly in relation to strategies for food acquisition and technology in an era of considerable climatic flux. The remembered knowledge of how their grandparents dealt with the last arid period, including alternative food acquisition strategies, would have enabled such surviving elders to greatly enhance the ability of their clan to deal with such difficult situations. 【Q5】
climatic flux 气候变化
Unfortunately, grinding seeds to make flour could be a mixed blessing. Depending on the type of stone used, the prolonged and laborious process of grinding cereal grains would produce small chips of stone that could get into the flour. People eating the products of such as flour every day would be repeatedly exposed to stone chips as they chewed their food, and eventually, their teeth might become chipped and worn.【Q6】 This problem was partially alleviated many millennia later by the invention of pottery, which enabled porridge to be made from grains mixed with water and boiled without grinding.
alleviated v.减轻，缓和（痛苦或困难）（alleviate 的过去式及过去分词） adj.减轻的，缓和的
millennia n.千年期；千周年纪念日（millennium 的复数）
pottery n.陶器；陶土，黏土；制陶，陶艺；陶瓷厂；陶瓷之都（斯塔福德郡特伦特河畔斯托克市周边地区，为英国陶瓷工业基地）（the Potteries）
【Q9: Not only are cereal grains nutritious, but they can also grow under conditions in which other plants cannot.】The second, and more immediate, reason for grinding cereal grains is that it enables us to produce a more attractive. sweeter tasting, more nutritious, and calorie-rich foodstuff. Rather than a hard, dry, indigestible, tooth-destroying- cereal grain, people could enjoy foods such as seed cakes, biscuits, and all the various forms of bread that we still relish so much today. Cereal grains that have been ground and processed into flour can be much more easily digested due to the higher surface area that is available for digestive enzymes (molecules that break down food). This means that not only the plentiful starches but also the grain proteins and the much less abundant micronutrients are more easily absorbed from processed cereals. 【Q7】In the cold, dry climate of the Last Glacial Maximum, plants of the grass family, such as cereals. would have been a more reliable source of food than woodland plants (e.g. nuts and berries. Many of these woodland plants would have died out as the weather worsened, and edible animals would have also become increasingly unavailable as they migrated to warmer climates, 【Q8】leaving cereals as one of the few remaining options for the people who chose. or were obliged. to remain in the Middle East.
enzymes / ˈenzaɪmz / n.[生化]酶（enzyme 的复数）；酶类，酵素
micronutrients / ˌmaɪkroʊˈnuːtriənts / n.[生化]微量营养物（micronutrient 的复数）
Last Glacial Maximum 末次盛冰期
woodland n.林地；森林 adj.林地的；居住在森林中的
A ❎ raw plants不益于牙齿磨损或缺牙的人
B ❎ 淀粉颗粒利于消化，人类饮食的重要部分并没有提到，输于无中生有
C ❎ 没有体现时间节点
D ✅grinding cereal grains不容易腐蚀牙齿、磨损牙齿
A 为转折前的信息 ❎
clearly unsuitable ❎ 可以用来研磨材料用来染色
process cereal grains——>C ✅
Middle Paleolithic Era 旧石器时代中期 Middle East 中东 D ❎
The remembered knowledge【主语】 of how their grandparents dealt with the last arid period, including alternative food acquisition strategies, would have enabled【谓语】 such surviving elders【宾语】 to greatly enhance the ability of their clan to deal with such difficult situations.
B 主宾关系错误 ❌
C develop alternative methods的是grandparents而不是elders ❌
D 没有help ❌
Not only are cereal grains nutritious, but they can also grow under conditions in which other plants cannot.
condition——cold——last glacial maximum
BCF ❎——>BCE ✅